Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2015, Page: 16-26
Economic Status and Use of Complimentary Energy Sources to Electricity among Households within Nakuru Municipality
Maina J. Kairu, Department of Education and External studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Oyugi Tobias, Department of Education and External studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Received: Jan. 6, 2015;       Accepted: Jan. 13, 2015;       Published: Jan. 23, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijefm.20150301.13      View  2642      Downloads  204
This study sought to investigate the relationship between economic status and use of complimentary energy sources to electricity among households within Nakuru Municipality. The study was premised on the desire of Kenya to be a middle income economy by the year 2030, in which case a substantial capacity of electrical energy will be required to power the anticipated industrial activity hence the need to conserve electrical energy which would in turn be utilized in the manufacturing sectors. Households are considered to play a role in inefficient usage of electricity. Literature reviewed has revealed that in rural areas of Kenya 52% use kerosene for lighting and 60% for cooking, this study however has found out that electricity is dominantly used for lighting within households of the Municipal Council of Nakuru (MCN), the households prefer solar energy as an alternative to electricity. However affordability is a challenge owing to the prohibitive capital cost compounded by house ownership issue. This study adopted correlational survey design and relied on both qualitative and quantitative data. Descriptive and Chi–Square Tests were used in data analysis to establish the relationship between the two variables. The population of the study was the entire houses owned by the MCN which in total add up to 5434 houses. A representative random sample size of 358 households was used in the study. Data was collected using Questionnaires and key informants interviews. The study found out that electricity was commonly used for lighting and normal domestic use. The study revealed a positive relationship between economic status of households and usage of complimentary energy sources to electricity among the households. The researcher recommended a further study on the evaluation of electricity usage among owner occupied residential houses that have a greater flexibility of choosing the kind of electrical installation as opposed to tenants.
Income Level, Complimentary Energy Sources, Nakuru Municipality
To cite this article
Maina J. Kairu, Oyugi Tobias, Economic Status and Use of Complimentary Energy Sources to Electricity among Households within Nakuru Municipality, International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2015, pp. 16-26. doi: 10.11648/j.ijefm.20150301.13
Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford.
Balla, P. (2006) National Study on Small Hydropower Development: Status and Potential of Small Hydropower Development in the Tea Industry in Kenya, unpublished report, Nairobi and Mombasa, UNEP/GEF and East African Tea Trade Association (EATTA)’
Basa, G. S. & Princess J. T. M. (2009). Energy Conservation Practices in Selected Households in Ald.
Brandon, G. R. (1993). Factors Affecting the Relationship Between Expressions of Environmental Concern. Climate Africa Network
Cook, S. & Berenberg, J. (1981). Approaches to encouraging conservation behaviour: a review and conceptual framework. Journal of Social Issues 73]107.
Daraga, A. (2005). Occasional Paper 26: Renewable in Kenya’s Electricity Industry: A Review of Geothermal and Cogeneration Technologies, Nairobi. African Energy Policy Research Network
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Gallup, G. & Newport, F. (1990). The effect of goal-setting and daily electronic feedback on in-home energy use. Journal of Consumer Research 98]105.
Goett, A.A. and Hudson, K., (2000). Customers' choice among retail energy suppliers: The Willingness-To-pay for service attributes. Energy Journal, 21 (4), 1-28.
GOK (2004b). Sessional Paper No.4 of 2004 on Energy, Nairobi, Government of Kenya (GOK)
GOK (2006) Code of Regulations (Revised), Director of Personnel Management.
Gwendolyn & Allan, L. (1999) Reducing Household Energy Consumption: A Qualitative and Quantitative Field Study. Journal of Environmental Psychology ,pp 83
HMSO._ Ester, P. (1985). Consumer Behaviour and Energy Conservation. Solar Energy Research Institute, US Department of Energy.
Horn of Africa (2000), Nairobi, Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD).
Howden-Chapman, P. (2009) Warm Homes: Drivers of the Demand for Heating in the Residential Sector in New Zealand. Energy policy, Vol. 37, No 9 pp 3387-99
Hutton, R. B., Mauser, G. A., Filiatrault, P. & Ahtola, O. T. (1986). Effects of cost related feedback on consumer
Jadresic, A., (2000). Promoting private investment in rural electrification- The case of Chile. Private Sector and Infrastructure Network Note number 214. World Bank, Washington, DC
Joerges, B. & Muller, H. (1983). Energy conservation programs for consumers: a comparative analysis of policy conflicts and program results in eight western countries. Journal of Economic Psychology, (1)35.
Karekezi and K, (2005). Sustainable Energy in Africa: Cogeneration and Geothermal in the East and Horn of Africa – Status and Prospects, Nairobi, AFREPREN/FWD
Karekezi, S. (2002). ‘Renewables in Africa – Meeting the Energy Needs of the Poor’, Energy Policy, Vol. 30 Nos. 11-12. Special Issue – Africa: Improving Modern Energy Service for the Poor, Oxford, Elsevier Ltd
Kasulis, J. J., Huettner, D. A. & Dikeman, N.J. (1981).The feasibility of changing electricity consumption patterns. Journal of Consumer Research 279-290.
Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (2010) A comprehensive Study and Analysis on Energy Consumption Patterns in Kenya. (KIPPRA)
Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey (KIHBS), (2007). Volume 1 basic report, 2005/06. Ministry of Planning and National Development (MoPND), Nairobi, Kenya
Kenya Pipeline Company Ltd (2006b). A Report on Current and Projected Consumption and Demand of Petroleum Products in the Great Lakes Region. 28th April 2006. KPC: Nairobi.
Kluger, A. & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 254-284.
KPLC (2006).Annual Report, 2006, Nairobi, Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC)
Lea, S., Tarpy, R. & Webley, P. (1987). The Individual In The Economy. Cambridge: C.U.P.
Lewis, A., Webley, P. & Furnham, A. _1995.. The New Economic Mind: the social psychology of economic behaviour. LondonrNew York: Harvesterr Wheatsheaf.
Longo, A., Markandya, A., and Petrucci, M., 2008. The internalization of externalities in the production of electricity: Willingness to pay for the attributes of a policy for renewable energy. Ecological Economics, 67(1), 140-152
McDougall, G., Claxton, J., Ritchie, B. & Anderson, C. (1981). Consumer energy research: a review. Journal of Consumer Research 343-354.
MoE, (2002): Study on Kenya’s Eenrgy Demand, Supply and Policy Strategy for Households, Small Scale Industries and Service Establishments, Nairobi, Ministry of Energy (MoE)
Nandi, S. & Bose, R.K. (2010). The Imperative of Efficient Energy Use in Cities: Analytical Approaches and Good Practices in Bose R.K. (ed.) Energy Efficient Cities: Assessment Tools and Benchmarking Practices, pp 1-19, The World bank, Washington D.C
Orodho,J (2005). Elements of Education and Social Science Research Methods, Masola Publishers Nairobi pp145
O’Sullivan, K. and Barnes, D.F. (2006). Energy policies and multitopic household surveys: Guidelines for questionnaire design in living standards measurement studies. Paper No. 17. Energy and Mining Sector Board Discussion Paper, ESMAP, Washington, DC.
Otegbulu, Austin C. (2010). Energy Efficient Practice: A Focus On Residential Households, Department of Estate Management; University of Lagos
Otivar. (2009). Energy Conservation Practices in Selected Households in Five Barangays in Legazpi City. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, College of Business, Economics and Management.
Pallak, M., Cook, D. & Sullivan, J. (1980). Commitment and Energy Conservation. Inc. Bickman Ed.
Rabah, K.V.O, (2005). Integrated solar energy systems forrural electrification. Renewable Energy, 30 (1), 23-42.
Republic of Kenya (2001). Study on Kenya’s Energy Demand, supply and Policy. Strategy for Households, Small-scale Industries and Service, Establishments, Government Printer.
Ritchie, B., McDougall, G. & Claxton, J. (1981). Complexities of household energy consumption and conservation.
Muma, B. O., Nyaoga, R. B., Matwere, R. B. and Onyango J. O. (2014). Green Supply Chain Management and Economic Performance: A Review of Tea Processing Firms in Kericho and Bomet Counties, Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research, 3 (11), 2319-7064
Roe, B., Teisl, M., Levy, A., and Russell, M., (2001). US consumers’ willingness to pay for green electricity. Energy Policy, 29, 917-925.
Sanghvi, A. and Barnes, D., (2001). Rural electrification: Lessons learned. World Bank Findings: Operational Quality and Knowledge Services, Africa Region Infrastructure 177. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Van der Plas, R. J. and Hankins, M. (1998). Solar electricity in Africa: A reality.Energy Policy, 26, 295-305.
Wamukonya, N., (2007). Solar home system electrification as a viable technology option for Africa’s development, Energy Policy, 35, 6-14.
Seligman, C., Kriss, M., Darley, J., Fazio, R. H., Beck, L. J. & Pryor, J. B. (1979). Predicting summer energy consumption from home owners’ attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 70-90.
Southwick, C.H, (1976). Ecology and the quality of our environment 2nd edition. D. Van Nostrad Company 450 west 33rd street, New York.
Muma, B. O., Nyaoga, B. R., Matwere, B. R. and Nyambega, E. K. (2014). Green Supply Chain Management and Environmental Performance among Tea Processing Firms in Kericho County, Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Science 2(5) 270-276
Browse journals by subject